The Bellman Award is given for distinguished career contributions to the theory or application of automatic control. It is the highest recognition of professional achievement for US control systems engineers and scientists. The recipient must have spent a significant part of his/her career in the USA. The awardee is expected to make a short acceptance speech at the AACC Awards Ceremonies during the ACC.
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Petar V. Kokotović received graduate degrees in 1962 from the University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia, and in 1965 at the Institute of Automation and Remote Control, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow. During his studies, he worked for two six month periods in 1956, at Electricite de France, Paris and then in 1957, at AEG, Stuttgart, Germany. From 1959 until 1966, he was with the Pupin Reseach Institute in Belgrade, Yugoslvia. From 1966 until 1990 he was with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Coordinated Sciences Laboratory at the University of Illinois, Urbana, where he held the endowed Grainger Chair. In 1991 he joined the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of the University of California at Santa Barbara, where he is currently the Director of the Center for Control Engineering and Computation.
In the 1960’s, Kokotović developed the sensitivity points method, a precursor to adaptive control, still in use for automatic tuning of industrial controllers. In the 1970’s, he pioneered singular perturbation techniques for multi-time-scale design of control systems and flight trajectories, which found widespread applications. One of them was a coherency aggregation methodology for large scale Markov chains and power systems. In the 1980’s, Kokotović and coworkers identified the main forms of adaptive systems instability and introduced redesigns that made adaptive controllers more robust. Kokotović’s current research is in nonlinear control, both robust and adaptive. He initiated the development of a popular nonlinear recursive design-backstepping, and its use for robust and adaptive nonlinear control. As a long-term industrial consultant, Kokotovic contributed to the design of computer controls for car engines and automotive systems at Ford, and to power system stability analysis at General Electric. Recently, he led a five-year collaborative research (with United Technologies) on nonlinear control of axial compressors for jet engines.
Professor Kokotović supervised some 30 Ph.D. students and 20 postdoctoral researchers. With them he co-authored numerous papers and ten books, four of which appeared in 1995-96. Professor Kokotović is a fellow of the IEEE and a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering. He is the recipient of the two highest control engineering awards: 1990 Quazza Medal by the International Federation of Automatic Control, and the 1995 Control Systems Field Award by the IEEE. He also received an Eminent Faculty Award, two Outstanding IEEE Transactions Paper Awards (1983 and 1993), and delivered the 1991 IEEE Control Systems Society Bode Prize Lecture. His most recent recognition is the 2002 IEEE James H. Mulligan Jr. Education Medal.
A.V. Balakrishnan earned his M.S. Degree in Electrical Engineering and his Ph.D. in Mathematics from the University of Southern California in 1950 and 1954, respectively. Prof. Balakrishnan has been with the University of California, Los Angeles, since 1961; he has been a Professor of Engineering since 1962 and a Professor of Mathematics since 1965. He was Chair of the Department of Systems Science in the (then) School of Engineering from 1969-1975. Since 1985, he has served as the appointed Director of the NASA-UCLA Flight Systems Research Center. Dr. Balakrishnan also lends his expertise to industry and the government, including Optimization Software, Inc., NADC US Navy, and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center.
Professor Balakrishnan holds patents on the "modes of interconnected lattice trusses using continuum models, and "laser beam log amplitude temporal scintillation spectrum due to crosswind". He has received honors and awards from the International Federation of Information Processing Society (1977), NASA (1978, 1992,1995, and 1996), and, in 1980, the Guillemin Prize in recognition of the major impact that his original contributions have had in setting the research direction of communications and control. Most recently, Prof. Balakrishnan has been selected as the 2001 awardee for the Richard E. Bellman Control Heritage Award, which is the highest recognition of professional achievement for US control systems engineers and scientists. He has published over 200 papers, and has authored or edited over 10 books.
Prof. Balakrishnan is a Lifetime Fellow of IEEE, a member of the International Scientific Radio Union, the Chair of the IFIP Technical Committee 7 and of Working Group 7.1, and the President of the ComCon Conference Board.
Dr. W. Harmon Ray is Vilas Research Professor and past chairman of the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. He received his B.A. and B.S.Ch.E. from Rice University and his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1966. Before joining the University of Wisconsin he was a faculty member at the University of Waterloo in Canada, from 1966 to 1970, and at the State University of New York at Buffalo, from 1970 to 1976. Professor Ray has had extensive industrial consulting experience, and has contributed numerous articles to the technical literature in the areas of polymerization processes, chemical reaction engineering, process modelling, optimization, and process dynamics and control. He is co-author of a monograph, Process Optimization, published in 1973, and author of Advanced Process Control which appeared in 1981. This latter book has been published in Russian and Chinese. Professor Ray is also co-editor of two volumes: Distributed Parameter Systems (1978), and Dynamics and Modelling of Reacting Systems (1980). More recently, he is the coauthor of the textbook, Process Dynamics, Modeling, and Control (1994).
In 1969, Professor Ray received the D. P. Eckman Award of the American Automatic Control Council and spent a year, in 1973-74, as a Guggenheim Fellow in Europe. In 1981 he received the Arthur K. Doolittle Award of the Organic Coatings and Plastics Division of the American Chemical Society and also the Automatica Prize Paper Award of the International Federation of Automatic Control. In addition, he was the recipient of the 1982 Professional Progress Award of the American Institute of Chemical Engineeers. In 1989 Prof. Ray received the Control Education Award from the American Automatic Control Council. Professor Ray has been a distinguished lecturer at a number of universities including the Lacey Lectures at Caltech, the Reilly Lectures at Notre Dame, the Kelley Lecture at Purdue, and the Sargent Lecture at Imperial College London.
Prof. Ray is a Fellow of AIChE, and a member of the National Academy of Engineering.
Yu-Chi (Larry) Ho received his S.B. and S.M. degrees in Electrical Engineering from M.I.T. and his Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics from Harvard University. Except for three years of full time industrial work he has been on the Harvard Faculty. Since 1969 he has been Gordon McKay Professor of Engineering and Applied Mathematics. Since 1989, he has been the T. Jefferson Coolidge Chair in Applied Mathematics and Gordon McKay Professor of Systems Engineering at Harvard. He was also the visiting professor to the Cockrell Family Regent's Chair in Engineering at the University of Texas, Austin in 1989.
He has published over 140 articles and three books, one of which (co-authored with A.E. Bryson, Jr.) has been translated into both Russian and Chinese and made the list of Citation Classics as one of the most referenced works on the subject of optimal control. He is on the editorial boards of several international journals and is the editor-in-chief of the international Journal on Discrete Event Dynamic Systems. He is the recipient of various fellowships and awards including the Guggenheim (1970) and the IEEE Field Award for Control Engineering and Science (1989), the Chiang Technology Achievement Prize (1993). He is a Life fellow of IEEE, a Distinguished Member of the Control Systems Society, and was elected a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (1987). In addition to service on various governmental and industrial panels, and professional society administrative bodies, he was the President of the IEEE Robotics & Automation Society in 1988 and co-founder of Network Dynamics, Inc., a software firm specializing in industrial automation.
His research interests lie at the intersection of Control System Theory, Operations Research, and Artificial Intelligence. He has contributed to topics range from optimal control, differential games, information structure, multi-person decision analysis, to incentive control, and since 1983, exclusively to discrete event dynamic systems, perturbation analysis, ordinal optimization, and computational intelligence.
Lotfi A. Zadeh joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1959, and served as its chairman from 1963 to 1968. Earlier, he was a member of the electrical engineering faculty at Columbia University. In 1956, he was a visiting member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. In addition, he held a number of other visiting appointments, among them a visiting professorship in Electrical Engineering at MIT in 1962 and 1968; a visiting scientist appointment at IBM Research Laboratory, San Jose, CA, in 1968, 1973, and 1977; and visiting scholar appointments at the AI Center, SRI International, in 1981, and at the Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University, in 1987-1988. Currently he is a Professor in the Graduate School, and is serving as the Director of BISC (Berkeley Initiative in Soft Computing).
Until 1965, Dr. Zadeh's work had been centered on system theory and decision analysis. Since then, his research interests have shifted to the theory of fuzzy sets and its applications to artificial intelligence, linguistics, logic, decision analysis, control theory, expert systems and neural networks. Currently, his research is focused on fuzzy logic, soft computing and computing with words. An alumnus of the University of Teheran, MIT, and Columbia University, Dr. Zadeh is a fellow of the IEEE, AAAS, ACM and AAAI, and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He was the recipient of the IEEE Education Medal in 1973 and a recipient of the IEEE Centennial Medal in 1984. In 1989, Dr. Zadeh was awarded the Honda Prize by the Honda Foundation, and in 1991 received the Berkeley Citation, University of California. In 1992, Dr. Zadeh was awarded the IEEE Richard W. Hamming Medal "for seminal contributions to information science and systems, including the conceptualization of fuzzy sets." He became a Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (Computer Sciences and Cybernetics Section) in 1992 and received the Certificate of Commendation for AI Special Contributions Award from the International Foundation for Artificial Intelligence. Also in 1992, he was awarded the Kampe de Feriet Medal and became an Honorary Member of the Austrian Society of Cybernetic Studies.
In 1993, Dr. Zadeh received the Rufus Oldenburger Medal from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers "for seminal contributions in system theory, decision analysis, and theory of fuzzy sets and its applications to AI, linguistics, logic, expert systems and neural networks." He was also awarded the Grigore Moisil Prize for Fundamental Researches, and the Premier Best Paper Award by the Second International Conference on Fuzzy Theory and Technology. In 1995, Dr. Zadeh was awarded the IEEE Medal of Honor "for pioneering development of fuzzy logic and its many diverse applications." In 1996, Dr. Zadeh was awarded the Okawa Prize "for outstanding contribution to information science through the development of fuzzy logic and its applications." In 1997, Dr. Zadeh was awarded the B. Bolzano Medal by the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic "for outstanding achievements in fuzzy mathematics." He also received the J.P. Wohl Career Achievement Award of the IEEE Systems, Science and Cybernetics Society. He served as a Lee Kuan Yew Distinguished Visitor, lecturing at the National University of Singapore and the Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, and as the Gulbenkian Foundation Visiting Professor at the New University of Lisbon in Portugal.
Dr. Zadeh holds honorary doctorates from Paul-Sabatier University, Toulouse, France; State University of New York, Binghamton, NY; University of Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany; University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain; University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Lakehead University, Canada; University of Louisville, KY; Baku State University, Azerbaijan; and the Silesian Technical University, Gliwice, Poland. Dr. Zadeh has authored close to two hundred papers and serves on the editorial boards of over fifty journals. He is a member of the Technology Advisory Board, U.S. Postal Service; Advisory Committee, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UC Santa Barbara; Advisory Board, Fuzzy Initiative, North Rhine-Westfalia, Germany; Fuzzy Logic Research Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas; Advisory Committee, Center for Education and Research in Fuzzy Systems and Artificial Intelligence, Iasi, Romania; Senior Advisory Board, International Institute for General Systems Studies; the Board of Governors, International Neural Networks Society; and is the Honorary President of the Biomedical Fuzzy Systems Association of Japan and the Spanish Association for Fuzzy Logic and Technologies.
R.E. Kalman was born in Budapest, Hungary, on May 19, 1930. He received the bachelor's degree (S.B.) and the masterís degree (S.M.) in electrical engineering, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1953 and 1954, respectively. He received the doctorate degree (D.Sci.) from Columbia University in 1957. His major positions include that of Research Mathematician at the Research Institute for Advanced Study in Baltimore, 1958-1964; Professor at Stanford University 1964-1971; Graduate Research Professor at the Center for Mathematical System Theory, University of Florida, Gainesville 1971-1993. Moreover, since 1973 he has also held the chair for Mathematical System Theory at the ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) Zurich.
He is the recipient of numerous awards, including the IEEE Medal of Honor (1974), the IEEE Centennial Medal (1984), the Kyoto Prize in High Technology from the Inamori foundation, Japan (1985), the Steele Prize of the American Mathematical Society (1987). He is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Science, the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, a foreign member of the Hungarian and French Academies of Science, and has received a number of honorary doctorates. Kalman's first major contribution was the introduction of the self-tuning regulator in adaptive control. Between 1959 and 1964 Kalman wrote a series of seminal papers. First, the new approach to the filtering problem, known today as Kalman Filtering was put forward. In the meantime, the all pervasive concept of controllability and its dual, the concept of observability, were formulated. By combining the filtering and the control ideas, the first systematic theory for control synthesis, known today as the Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian or LQG theory, resulted. The next contribution was the solution of the black box modelling problem in the linear case, known as realization theory. This problem involves the construction of the state from input/output measurements. The next milestone in the sequence of contributions was the introduction of module theory to the study of linear systems.
Over the past 15 years Kalman has devoted his efforts to the understanding of the problem of identification from noisy data with particular attention to the connections with econometrics, statistics and probability theory.
Elmer G. Gilbert received his B.S.E. and M.S.E. degrees in Electrical Engineering in 1952 and 1953, respectively, and his Ph.D. in Instrumentation Engineering in 1957, all from the University of Michigan. He has been with the University of Michigan's Department of Aerospace Engineering (then called Aeronautical Engineering) since 1954, becoming Professor in 1963 and Professor Emeritus in 1994. Visiting positions include the United States Air Force Academy (1965), the Johns Hopkins University (1974-1976, 1991-1992), the University of Minnesota (1985-1986), and the National University of Singapore (multiple times 1997-2005).
Dr. Gilbert has had a highly varied career in engineering development, basic research, and teaching. This has led to over 100 publications and 9 patents. In the systems and control area at the University of Michigan, he was active in curriculum development and as an advocate for cross-department cooperation. He was Chair or Co-Chair of doctoral committees for 23 students.
During his graduate studies, he was involved in the department’s analog computer and aircraft simulation research programs. This activity continued through the 1960’s, both in the department and as a consultant to Applied Dynamics Incorporated, a computer firm founded in 1957 by him and two other department professors, Robert M. Howe and Edward O. Gilbert. Up to 1970, he was a key member of the Applied Dynamics group responsible for conception and development of new products, primarily state-of-the-art analog and hybrid computers. The firm still exists, specializing in hardware and software tools for hardware-in-the-loop simulation, system prototyping, and embedded controller software.
The 1960’s were a period of rapid development for the theory and application of control systems. This was the area of work in which Dr. Gilbert’s university activities were centered. A principal interest was the design of multivariable control systems. Based on his experience in system simulation, he observed that casual use of matrices of transfer functions did not allow adequate descriptions of the underlying dynamics they represent. This led to his widely recognized work (1962-1963) on the role of observability and controllably on state-space system representations, including the Gilbert realization, now a standard topic in system textbooks. A long-standing problem in multivariable linear-systems theory, not involving transfer functions, was input-output decoupling by state feedback. Dr. Gilbert gave its first complete solution in 1969. The result led to a large body of subsequent research in the field. Computational issues motivated much of his other research in the 1960’s. This included convexity-based, abstract optimization algorithms that led to the efficient solution of practical optimal control problems (for example, minimum-fuel impulsive control).
Dr. Gilbert’s research contributions, after the 1960’s, are characterized by overlapping themes that already had appeared in his prior work: dynamic system representation and realization, optimal control, systems with hard (point-wise in time) constraints, and effective computational procedures. Specific topics treated include: periodic optimal control and its application to improved aircraft flight efficiency, feedback decoupling for nonlinear systems, power-law functional expansions for the input-output response of nonlinear systems, stability of nonlinear control systems with feedback provided by model predictive control, efficient procedures for computing the distance between objects (polytopes) in 3 space, path planning for robots in the presence obstacles, domains of attraction for linear systems with hard constraints and set bounded disturbances, and reference and command governors for linear systems with disturbances and hard constraints. Some of the papers on these topics published by Dr. Gilbert and his colleagues have become standard references in the control systems literature. Perhaps the most widely recognized paper is the one in 1988 with S. S. Keerthi on model predictive control. It was the first contribution to address in specific, rigorous ways stability issues crucial in many current control applications.
Recognitions for Dr. Gilbert’s contributions include: Fellow of the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineering for “Contributions to multivariable and optimal control systems” (1979), election to the Johns Hopkins University Society of Scholars (1990), a Distinguished Faculty Achievement Award from the University of Michigan (1991), Fellow of American Association for the Advancement of Science for “Contributions to theory and practice of multivariable, optimal, nonlinear, and computer control systems and to control engineering education" (1995). In 1994, he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering: "For contributions to the theory and practice of multivariable, optimal, non-linear, and computer control systems, and to control engineering education." In 1994, he received the IEEE Technical Field Award in Control Systems "For pioneering and innovative contributions to linear state space theory and its applications, especially realization and decoupling, as well as to control algorithms." In 1996, he received the Richard E. Bellman Control Heritage Award from the American Automatic Control Council "In recognition of a distinguished career in automatic control, with pioneering research contributions to a broad range of subjects including linear multivariable systems theory, computation of optimal controls, nonlinear systems theory, and motion planning in the presence of obstacles."
July 4, 1996
I am immensely pleased by the Award! It is indeed a special honor, coming from the American Automatic Control Council, which has done so much to advance and to unify the field of control. I recall with delight the long sequence of Joint Automatic Control Conferences and the subsequent American Control Conferences. The Council's many current activities, including its participation in this 13th IFAC World Congress, continue its invaluable service to the control community.
In receiving the award I wish to recognize the support of friends, colleagues and former students. They have played a vital role in my work. I must also acknowledge the special influence of others I have known mostly or entirely through their publications. It is no surprise that Richard Bellman was one of them. Let me make a few remarks about his legacy and how it affects us today.
In examining his writings I am struck by his genuine interest in applications and obvious desire to make his findings useful to a wide audience. In this, I believe, there are lessons to be learned. I'll note four.
1. Fundamental ideas have greater power when they are elegantly expressed. There is no better example than Bellman's formulation of dynamic programming. Its wonderfully stated ideas permeate and illuminate much of what we do, ranging from deep theoretical results in optimal control to practical, on-line implementation of controllers.
2. Propagation of knowledge is enhanced by the establishment of connections across fields and disciplines. Bellman's 1960 book, "Introduction to Matrix Analysis," illustrates this point beautifully. The discussions and bibliographies and the end of each chapter are marvelous sources of insight and diversity.
3. In mathematical exposition, clarity and accessibility are precious attributes. Bellman had a special talent for keeping mathematical developments closely connected to first principles and organizing them in simple, easy to understand parcels. He had the courage to compromise generality for clarity and, on occasion, rigor for insight.
4. Numerical issues are crucial to control applications. Bellman realized this early, four decades ago, when he addressed controller implementation, algorithm design, error analysis, and computational complexity.
Over the years the field of control has become mature, complex and diverse. We now need, as Richard Bellman did so well, to give greater attention to the means by which we encourage its progress and impact on society. On that point I will end. Thank you.